Aspiration：[æspəˈreʃən] n. 渴望
desire to achieve things
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The aspiration to neutrality findsprominent expression in our politics and low.
Prominent: ['prɒmɪnənt] adj. 突出的
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In days gone by, when theonly entertainment in town on a Wednesday night was to go to the countycourthouse to listen to a prominent politician give a theatrical tiradeagainst Herbert Hoover, an eloquent speaker could pack the courthouse and havefive thousand people lined up to the railroad tracks listening to the boomingloudspeakers.
Derive: [dɪ'raɪv] v. 源于
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Although neutrality derives from theliberal tradition of political thought, its province is not limited to thoseknown as liberals.
Disprove：[dɪsˈpruv] v. 反驳
prove to be false
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It’s as difficult to disprove animalconsciousness as it is to prove it.
Oppose: [kən'sɝvətɪv] v. 反对
unwilling to acceptchanges and new ideas
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Conservatives appeal to neutrality when opposingattempts by government to impose certain moral restraints.
Welfare: ['wɛl'fɛr] n. 福利
health, comfort,and happiness
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Republicans have long complained thattaxing the rich to pay for welfare programs for the poor is a form ofcoerced charity that violates people’s freedom to choose what to do with theirown money.
Assure：[ə'ʃʊr] adj. 保证
you tell them that it is definitely true or will definitely happen,often in order to make them less worried
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Democrats have long replied that governmentmust assure all citizens a decent level of income, housing, educationand health care.
Permanent: ['pɝmənənt] adj. 永久的
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So familiar is this vision of freedom thatit might seem a permanent feature of the American political tradition.
Deliberating: [dɪ'lɪbərət]v. 仔细考虑
plan and decide beforehand
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It involves deliberatingwith fellow citizens about the common good and helping to shape the destiny ofthe political community.
Sustain：[sə'sten] v. 维持
continue or maintain for a period oftime
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For despiteits appeal, the liberal vision of freedom lacks the civic resources to sustainself-government.
Monopoly: [mə'nɑpəli] n. 垄断
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Twenty-fiveyears ago be published a short book suggesting that humans didn’t have the monopolyon thoughts and feelings
Appall: [əˈpɔl] v. 使惊愕
fill with fear or alarm
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Otherscientists were appalled.
Disguise: [dɪsˈɡaɪz] v. 伪装
make something appear different so that people will not know about it orwill not recognize it
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Animal enrichment programs featuring mentalpuzzles disguised as toys and treats have become a standard part ofdaily life at zoos.
Issue: [ˈɪʃu] n. 问题
an importantsubject that people are arguing about or discussing / v. 发行 make somethingknown formally or publicly
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And in the spring of 2001 the University ofChicago Press issued an updated edition of Dr. Griffin’s 1992 book, AnimalMinds.
Cautious：[ˈkɔʃəs] adj. 谨慎的
acts very carefully in order to avoid possible danger
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Scientists,including me, have come to be very cautious.
Misinterpret：[ˌmɪsɪnˈtɜ:rprɪt] v. 误解
understand something wrongly
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Early work on primate gestures and facialexpressions was grossly misinterpreted.
Interpret: [ɪnˈtɜ:rprɪt] v. 解释
decide the meaning or significance of something
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But the effort to explain what was in his head has spawned almost asmany interpretationsas the words themselves have generated politicalmovements.
Intensify: [ɪnˈtɛnsəˌfaɪ] v. 增强
make somethingbecome greater in strength, amount, or degree
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In fact the recent findings appear to haveonly intensified the debate over animal consciousness.
Mess: [mɛs] n. 混乱
something in an untidystate
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Tufts University philosopher Daniel C.Dennett declared the state of thinking on animal consciousness a “mess”.
Advocate: [ˈædvəˌket] v. 提倡
recommend something publicly/ n. 提倡者
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On the one hand there are the pro-consciousness philosophers like Colin McGinn, a professor at RutgersUniversity, and Peter Singer, a professor of bioethics at Princeton and aleading animal rights advocate.
Primitive: [ˈprɪmɪtɪv] adj. 原始的
belonging to avery early period in the development
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I think it’s plain common sense thatanimals have conscious states,” Mr. McGinn said. “Animals way down to insectshave phenomenal consciousness. It’s a primitive feature of thebiological world.
Unleash：[ʌnˈliʃ] v. 发泄、释放
release or vent
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Dr. Griffin appears mildly amused by thedebate his work has helped unleash.
Crack: [kræk] v. 打破
something becomes slightlydamaged, with lines appearing on its surface.
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If they tried, scientists could hardlyinvent a more difficult mystery to crack.
Detached: [dɪˈtætʃt]adj. 单独的
not joined to any other house
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Sprawl’s other most familiar form is drivenlargely by the American dream of a detachedhome in the middle of agrassy lawn.
Detached: [dɪˈtætʃt] Adj. 超然的
not personally involved insomething or has no emotional interest in it
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the narrator develops the third paragraphmainly through detached philosophical musings on the nature of theobject she sees.
Hinder: [ˈhɪndɚ]v. 阻碍
prevent the progress or accomplishment
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Where fires have been prevented, the forestfloor rapidly becomes colonized by shade tolerant white firs and incensecedars, hindering redwood regeneration.
Obstacle: [ˈɑ:bstəkl]n. 障碍
an obstruction that stands in the way
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There is also a major obstacle outside theworkshop: the resistance of the buyers to new woods.
Inhibit: [ɪnˈhɪbɪt]v. 抑制
prevent something from happening
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On the other hand, the heating andionization can also agitate clouds, inhibiting the birth of new stars.
Fluctuation:[ˌflʌktʃʊˈeʃən] n. 波动
change a lot in anirregular way
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Helmholtz was very conscious of color “constancy”—the way in whichthe colors of objects are preserved, so that we can categorize them and alwaysknow what we are looking at, despite great fluctuations in thewavelength of the light illuminating them.
Illuminate: [ɪˈluməˌnet] v. 照亮
shine light on something
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Helmholtz was very conscious of color “constancy”—the way in whichthe colors of objects are preserved, so that we can categorize them and alwaysknow what we are looking at, despite great fluctuations in the wavelength ofthe light illuminating them.
Illusory: [ɪˈlusəri] adj. 虚幻的
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What is illusory is the widely held assumption that humanhave toiled miserably throughout history, only to be freed from labor by20th-century technology.
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These demonstrations, overwhelming intheir simplicity and impact, were color “illusions” in Goethe’s sense,but illusions that demonstrated a neurological truth –that colors are not “outthere” in the world nor an automatic correlate of wavelength, but, rather, areconstructed by the brain.
Overwhelming: ˌ[oʊvərˈwelmɪŋ] adj. 巨大的
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These demonstrations, overwhelmingin their simplicity and impact, were color “illusions” in Goethe’s sense, butillusions that demonstrated a neurological truth –that colors are not “outthere” in the world nor an automatic correlate of wavelength, but, rather, areconstructed by the brain.
Trigger: [ˈtrɪɡɚ] v. 引发
to make sth happen suddenly
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As the Earth’s orbit slowly changes, sodoes the pattern of the sunlight falling on a given spot on the globe, triggeringthe glaciers’ advance and retreat.
Counteract:[ˌkaʊntɚˈækt] v. 抵消
reduce the effect ofsomething by doing something that produces an opposite effect
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Until scientists can explain changes in Earths climatic past, theycannot be sure they aren’t overlooking factors that could either counteracta human-made warming or amplify it.
Amplify: [ˈæmpləˌfaɪ] v. 扩大
increase strength or intensity
Delve: [dɛlv] v. 探究
try to discover new information about something
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However, given that Marshall, laid the foundation fortoday's racial landscape, his grand design of how race relations best workmakes his life story essential for anyone delving into the subject.
Remedy: [ˈrɛmɪdi] n. 补救办法
asuccessful way of dealing with a problem
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And it was Marshall, as the nation’s firstAfrican-American Supreme Court Justice, who promoted affirmative action—preferences,set-asides, and other race-conscious policies—as the remedy for the damage remainingfrom the nation’s history of slavery and racial bias.
Circumscribe: [ˈsɜ:rkəmskraɪb] v. 限制
limit or restrict
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Furthermore, even withregard to high-visibility issues, significant communication between theelectorate and public officials is extremely circumscribed.
Deter: [dɪˈtə:] v. 阻止
try to prevent
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Serious coverage ofgoings-on in government is deterred by the fact that government is sotechnical that even career civil servants cannot explain what is happening.
Diligent: [ˈdɪlədʒənt] adj. 勤奋的
works hard in a careful and thorough way
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Intricate technical issues such astaxation, arms control, and nuclear power are difficult to understand forprofessionals, to say nothing of the most diligent layman.
Extol: [ɪkˈstoʊl] v. 赞美
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“A rolling stone gathers no moss” as extollingthe virtues of action as opposed to the more sedentary life.
Underestimate: [ˌʌndɚˈɛstəmet] v. 低估
If you underestimate something, you do not realize how largeor great it is or will be.
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According to the Bozeman Chronicle,even if federal specialists have wildly underestimatedthe number of cows and sheep that wolves would kill in the Yellowstone andcentral Idaho areas, the actual totalwould be much smaller than the number that die each year in the stateof Montana alone because of storms, dogs, and accidents.
Inherent：[ɪnˈhɪrənt] adj. 固有的
existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
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If you raise Christmas trees, part of thecost and risk of doing business is losing a few trees to gypsy moths and icestorms; inherent in the cost of ranching, particularly on public lands,should be the cost and risk of losing livestock to predators.
Eclipse: [ɪˈklɪps] v. 使黯然失色
begreater in significance than
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The industry’s cry of economic loss has eclipsed the costs tothe general public of not having wolves.
Reciprocity: [ˌresɪˈprɑ:səti] n. 互惠
arelation of mutual dependence or action or influence
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The story of this conflict is the story ofhow we view ourselves in relation to animals, whether we can replace theassumption of “dominion” That has been so destructive to us and the natural worldwith a worldview that recognizes that we live in a state of reciprocitywith the birds and the beasts-that we are not only the product of nature butalso part of it.
Foster: [ˈfɔ:stə] v. 促进
to encourage something to develop
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Her research—whichshe conducts alongside her husband, an organic farmer—exploresgenetically engineered crops that, instead of serving the rapacity ofagribusiness, foster the fundamentals of sustainability.
an impending event is one that is going tohappen very soon
Endeavor: [ɪn’devə] n. 努力
apurposeful or industrious undertaking
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Their endeavor, counterintuitive as it seems, points to an emerginggreen biotech frontier— a hidden realm of opportunity to feed theworld’s impending 9 billion a diet produced in anenvironmentally responsible way.
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