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ACT写作之举例论证法

2021-02-27 09:16:00来源:网络

  为了帮助大家备考ACT,新东方在线ACT频道整理了《ACT写作之举例论证法》,希望对大家有所帮助。

  举例论证

  举例论证是议论文中的一种方法。通过列举真实、可靠,有代表性的事例证明论点。通过列举典型事例,具体有力地证明了中心论点,增强了说服力。在ACT写作改革后,话题不再局限于教育类的题目,而是更广泛的社会类或者其他更加抽象的题目,所以可以利用举例论证的方式增强话题的真实性。在举例论证的时候尽量避免俗例或没有代表性的例子,而是举一些如名人、有代表性的事例。

  例证可以分为事例和语例两类。

  事例:以当前的或者历史的事件或人物作例证。

  语例:用专家、学者、知名人士等的话作例证。

  旧版满分作文:

  【例2】

  As machines increasingly perform all our basic tasks, society is able to produce more. The additional production adds material value to our society and frees people up from these low-skill tasks. This is in agreement with Perspective Two which claims that this industrialization leads to more prosperity. For example, in the 18th century, short-staple cotton that was grown in the Southern United States required an immense amount of labor in order to seperate the seeds from the fiber to process the cotton to make it marketable. However, in the mid-19th century, Eli Whitney, an American entrepreneur, invented the cotton gin, which allowed for automation of cotton processing. This machine replaced the need of a large work force for the process and greatly improved production. As a result of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton production skyrocketed, increasing by more than 10 times in the South while bringing prosperity to the region and setting in motion a new industrial era in America.

  这一段的观点是Society is able to produce more.作者在这里引用cotton gin的例子,来说明machine代替人类之后,明显的produce more。运用具体的历史事件来说明观点。

  具体的事件包括哪些部分?我们来分析一下:

  When-in the 18th century

  What—short-staple cotton

  Where—in the Southern United States

  Why—required an immense amount of labor in order to…

  Who—Eli Whitney

  Function-replaced the need of a large work force

  Result-increasing by more than 10 times and setting in motion…

  具体的事例在列举的过程中包括了时间、地点、人物、事件以及作用与影响。

  但是也有另外一些举例方式,如新版满分作文三个body段的三个例子:

  【例3】

  For example, in the automotive industry, most of a car’s individual components are manufactured by pre-programmed robots which have much greater and more precise output than would be possible for a human.

  【例4】

  For example, before the first airplane was invented, people could only dream of human flight, but at the moment of takeoff, a whole new world of unimaginable possibilities was suddenly within our grasp.

  【例5】

  Take the example of self checkout systems in grocery stores. Self checkout permits consumers to procure their goods and get out of the store quickly.

  作者在三段运用了三个例子,分别是robots, airplane和self checkout,每个例子并没有给出具体的时间地点原因等,仅用一句话来概括例子的引用的事物。

  在举例论证的时候,包括简单例证和复杂例证。

  简单例证是用一两句话来概括事件,复杂例证是指完整的、详细的举例。大家在写作的过程中,要根据时间的多少、篇幅长短和论证的深入程度,善于结合利用简单例证和复杂例证。

  举例需要注意的问题有哪些呢?

  1、要紧扣论点,并注意所举例子与论点的结合。举例论证时,所举事例必须与所论证的观点紧密相扣,这才能起到论证的作用。在选择事例时,就要看事例本身是否能证明所述观点的合理性。同时,由于事例往往能够从多个角度证明问题,因此,在叙述事例时,还要有意识地突出事例中与论点相扣的一面,不能泛泛而谈。

  2、举例后要稍加分析。举例是为了说理,举例过程中或概述事例之后要对事例作适当的分析,来说明它为什么能支持你的论点,指出它与论点之间的联系。有很多同学举例时写了一堆事件,然后结束。甚至并没提到论点出现的词,单纯的罗列事物就会造成事理脱节,举例效果不强。

  举例论证常用的标志词有哪些呢?

  如 for example, for instance, take…as an illustration, As is illustrated by…, take…as an example, take the case of…as an example

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